Australia is a world leader in household uptake of solar photovoltaic systems. In this paper we use household-level data to identify economic, social, and environmental factors that influence actual uptake and the intention to install. We find that higher net wealth is generally associated with higher likelihood to install. Households that have mortgages, that spend more on electricity, and that pay higher average electricity prices are more likely to intend to install. Environmental preferences and related behaviours, property tenure, and space constraints are associated with both actual uptake and intention to install. We use data from the Survey of Income and Housing of 2015–16 and the Household Energy Consumption Survey of 2012.